来源: www.qdlslphs.com 作者:anne 发布时间:2019-06-25 论文字数:0字
论文编号: sb2019062511274726956 论文语言:- 论文类型:-
Abstract摘要 童年是语言习得的第一个关键时期,这段语言习得主要取决于接触儿童的语言环境。可以说语言环境决定了儿童语言习得的速度。在此期间,他们受到环境的极大影响。大约七岁时
Childhood is the first critical period of language acquisition, and this period of language acquisition primarily depends on the language environment of children exposed to. It can be said that language environment determines the speed of the child language acquisition. During this period, they are extremely affected by the environment. At about seven years of age, first language acquisition process is basically completed. They can tell which sentence is correct or wrong in terms of the syntax, and to be able to talk about things that happened in the past and will happen in the future. This article is from the aspect of film and television animation to study its effect to children's first language acquisition, and hopes with inspiration of film and television animation can create better environment for children language acquisition and to improve their language skills.
1. Introduction简介
According to Piaget's view, children's development is the result of themselves and the environment interact. So the children acquired their mother tongue has partly come from the outside world. From the view of psychology, children are very sensitive with shape, color, and sound. Specific audio-visual objects can easily arouse their interest, and they are good at imitate things. Film and television animation has a continuous storyline, changing venues, scenes, rich character expressions, bright colors and sweet music, dialogue in front of children and loved by the children. The specific image animation are fit the characteristics of children's perception, provide objects for children language simulation and conditions for the development of creative language. Predecessors have studied the relationship between film and television animation and children second language acquisition, in other words, how to explore English education in film and television animation. They just talk about how to use cartoons in the classroom teaching and how to choose the educational cartoon to educate children.
儿童不仅要通过语言来理解世界,还要在思维和社交中运用语言,用语言来表达自己的愿望和感受。换句话说,语言能力是智力结构的重要特征。因此,健康的孩子,掌握语言技能尤为重要。在语言学研究中,儿童语言学习的过程是检验语言与思想之间关系的好方法。事实证明,良好的思维不能离开语言,语言是一种思维方式。这也解释了它只有我们理解了思想与语言之间的关系,才能真正理解孩子的“聪明”不仅仅是天生的聪明,还有很多非智力因素,让孩子学习一种具有目标的语言。Children are not only to understand the world through language, but also to use the language in thinking and social, use language to express their wishes and feelings. In other words, language ability is an important characteristic of the intelligence structure. Therefore, a healthy child, the acquisition of language skills is particularly important. In the study of linguistics, the process of children's language learning is a good way to examine the relationship between language and thought. It proved a good thinking can’t leave language, and language is a form of thinking. This also explains it only we have understood the relationship between thought and language, can we truly understand the children's "clever" is not just innate by intelligent, there are a lot of non-intelligence factors, so that children learn a language with target.
In this study, CHI, INJ, INQ, INO, INV, INK, INM, INP, INR, SYY, GCY, SYHO, SYH, GCY, CH1 and CH2 are the researcher code, FRD is friend of the object, MOT is the mother of the object.
2. Effects of film language on children
2.1 Turning-taking
Session is the mainly way to convey information and exchange ideas, conversation analysis is a branch of discourse analysis. Session speaker and addressee need to change roles and take turns speaking, this phenomenon is known as turning-taking [1]. According to Sacks and Psathas, turning-taking usually has three basic laws to follow, (1) After turning-taking formed, current speaker can select next second speaker , the second speaker has qualification to select third speaker; (2) Turning-taking has formed, but the condition is not enough to select next speaker, addressee can grasp the opportunity to actively speak. (3) If the speaker can’t effectively use selection techniques to select the next speaker, and if the addressee don’t actively to speak, the current speaker has to continue speaking[2].
With the in-depth study of pragmatics for session, the study of pragmatic development for preschool children will focus on session acquisition of how to find a topic, respond to topics, interrupt a session, keep or give up the topic, extended session and repair topics and so on. Jaffe puts forward that before children began to speak, they have been able to frequently turn-take with adult. The origin of the alternate sessions is the “Look” between infants and caregivers[4]. Snow[5] first deeply analyst children and adult's turn-taking and found mother and 3 months baby has been take-turn frequently when playing and breastfeeding with baby. Nninio and Snow [6] systematical summed children's session ability to turn ability, initiate and maintain session ability, session fix ability. Zhou Jing’s study[7] shows that children's language ability is mainly for children how to use appropriate language to express himself; how to apply the appropriate policy to carry out conversations with others; how to organize language to expressing their ideas according to different situations.
2.1.1 Ability to obtain turn-taking
The turn-taking study of preschool children session is how to get, maintain, spare turn-taking and fix duplicate and awkward turn-taking. According to the three turn-taking basic laws, analysis of data found that preschool children in the acquisition process of the session has been intentional or unintentional to use pragmatic strategies to turn successful conversion, guaranteed sessions run smoothly.
In adult conversation, the listener may use additional semantics, tail recommends and appropriate tail, the simultaneous echo, courtesy parenthesis to obtain turn-taking. Through research we found that obtain turn-tanking is one of the most frequently used strategy of two children. Among them, additional semantics, tail recommends appears most often. However, the obtainable of children turn-taking, few children use courtesy parenthesis. The reason caused the phenomenon may be due to preschool children are more focused on the result of getting turn and pay less attention to the concept of polite. On the research of obtain turn-taking strategy, we also found, in MHR (big head son and small head dad) and ZHZ (big head son and small head dad) observation points, two children are exist through repeat former speaker tail words or phrases get turn-taking, and this repeat times are 27 and 22, and before or after the session doesn’t appear this phenomenon. The reason is it may be during this period, children turn-tanking strategies are developing in the transition.
1.Additional semantics
Dixson[8] points out, active speaker can supplement the current speaker's discourse semantics at the right time, takes this opportunity to make a turn or a voice. In example 1, INJ word "Sweet?" that described the jujube cakes taste discourse grammar has very complete but semantically but not entirely accurate, simple sweet and does not accurately describe jujube cake flavor. CHI with "a little bit" added INJ words semantically managed to get a turn, and tells her comments: except sweet, jujube cake is spicy.
Example 1%exp1: INJ and CHI are eating Jujube cake.
*INJ: sweet?
*CHI: a little bit spicy, a little bit sweet.
2.Tail recommends
Active speaker is at the right moment to end a closely end session with appropriate recommendation [9]. In example 2, INQ's words "too high" apparently tried to persuade CHI give up the idea of climbing on the sculpture's back, but after INQ's Word, CHI immediately put forward his own idea that he doesn't want to give up and successfully acquired a speaking opportunity.
Example 2%exp: CHI wants to climb up the statues in the small park.
*INQ: Grey Wolf is too high.
*CHI: the tiger is also very easy to climb.
(Pleasant goat and Grey Wolf)
2.1.2 Keep the ability to turn-taking
From the turn-taking obtainable strategies used by children can be seen at the end of each sentence, current talking faces the possibility of the next speaker takes turn. In our study we found that to keep their word not to be taken away, children will use some strategies to keep their chances. In session with the peer in children, compared to the adults keep turns, children are rich in the use of strategies. The reason is because children more focused on get turn-tanking and less concern in courtesy during the conversation. Or turn-taking will be taken away, and during the session with adult especially recording people, recording people usually will let children talk more, not easily interrupt, thus children need less turn-taking strategy to keep turn.
1. Filler words
When children express their opinions they often faced the situation that when they finished their words but don’t know how to express the next sentence. In example 3, to avoid word is stopped and obtained by another speaker, child will use filler words such as "Ouch", "forget it", "La La La". The gap between syntactic units that may arise will be filled up to prevent their voice or turn to be obtained by each other.
Example 3 *CHI: hey, I am now acting.
*INO: Ok, you can begin.
*CHI: each posture is like this. Ouch. This way, exercise began. Dududu, forget it. Who is the singer? Ouch. Hello everyone. My nickname is shiny. My name is Mo Han Rui. I am a student of Xiang-Jing kindergarten. I'm four and a half years old. Let me give you a show. Let me show you programs called little duck. 
(Home Alone)
2.未完成标记语 Unfinished mark words
Children’s another strategy to hold turn is to use unfinished mark words, such as "first", "second", "because” to express to the listener that the current speaker still have several sentences to say. This is fluently used strategy by children to keep turn, and mainly to be associated with conjunctive words. In example 4, CHI uses "because" to show for INV that his word is not finished before in the corresponding mark language "so" to successfully keep turn.
Example 4 *INV: Oh-? That’s it! That she can't catch it if she is eagle!
*CHI: Let’s do it, Like to run to the back, because # last is easy to catch, behind in the middle is the most # safe, front is second safety, so the last is easy to catch.
(Home Alone)
2.1.3 Transfer the ability to turn-tanking
Current speaker may take the initiative to transfer turn-taking to listener if necessary. Through the analysis of adult conversation, He Zhaoxiong [10] summarizes three strategies to transfer turn-taking: nominate selected, assign topic, completely optional. Yan Huang [11] summarizes six strategies to give up turn-taking: salutation, adjacent, tag questions and 3 turn-taking strategies.
The first part of adjacent is the speaker has nominated the topic when he asked questions and thus can be classified as the specified topic strategies. Through corpus analysis, transfer turn-tanking strategy is the most skilled and the best for two children, especially for ZHZ, it’s the most frequently used type of strategy. On the children turn-taking strategy analysis, we found that nomination selection and specify topic are the most frequently used strategy and polite formula are relatively least used.
1.Nominated selected
Nominate selected is the speaker nominates by way of selecting the next speaker, and assigned to the listener to turn. During the session, the genre of next speaker is also specified by the previous speaker. In example 5, the "mothers" is not only been designated as the next speaker and topic is decided by CHI, too.
Example 5 %exp:CHI wants to press the button on the computer keyboard.
*CHI: Mom, I want to press this button!
*MOT: I said no key can be press.
(Despicable Me)
2.Specify the topic
Current speaker’s turn-talking towards the end, he can limit next speaker's topic, but don’t specify the speaker. In this study we found that "specified topic" is the most used transfer turn-tanking strategy by children. In example six, CHI is just limited the topic of next speaker to show his intention to transfer the turn-taking but doesn’t specify the speaker
.Example 6 %exp:CHI, his mother and the reporter are having a walk.
*CHI:There is a cobblestone, can I take it to home?
(Despicable Me) 
2.1.4 Ability to repeat and fix silence
Mostly, sessions consist of two or more participants involved in turn-taking, however, whenever there is only one person to speak. "Overlapping" refers to the process of the change of turn-taking two people try to talk at the scene. Yule [12] point out “Silence” means when two people try to make words but there was "no flow" or fluently talking lost its smooth rhythm of communication phenomena. These two conditions can be embarrassing. Through research, we have found that when this happens, pre-school children already know how to use strategies to fix it, but the use of this type of strategy is not mature
1.Fix the "overlapping" pragmatic strategies
Interrupted or snatch the words of others is impolite behavior. When overlap occurs, there must be someone to transfer turn. Even though when children get turn they pay more attention to result and ignore politeness, but we found in the study, when it appeared in "overlapping" situations, children often take the initiative to withdraw from patching strategy.
Example seven %exp:INJ and CHI are eating Jujube cake. 
*CHI:There is a little 
*INJ: Sour? No.
*CHI:A little bit and a little bit spicy.
(Children of Heaven)
In example seven, CHI want described her taste of jujube cakes with INJ, INJ feels the taste of jujube cakes is not sour and eager to ask CHI, stuck a "sour? No." CHI stopped, wait for INJ finish his talking and continue his expression.
2.Fix silence pragmatic strategies
On MHR and ZHZ’s corpus analysis, the silence situation appears less. But when there is a silence, children already know how to use strategies to repair the embarrassment of silence, mainly are duplicate strategy, nomination strategy, ask back, prevarication. Repeat strategy means when session appears awkward silences that appear in an embarrassing situation, the former speaker can repair by repeat the words. Nomination strategy means under the ice case specified by naming a speaker, such as the "Pingping, I am asking you. (Children of Heaven) ". Ask back strategy refers to the speaker through the form of rhetorical questions to prompt the speaker took turns next so as to avoid the embarrassment of awkward silences. In example 8, CHI couldn’t immediately give the right answers to INR’s questions, in order to continue talked, CHI uses prevarication language such as "er".
Example 8 *INR: Is this man riding a horse to refuel?
*CHI: e2# no, horses cannot refuel. (Children of Heaven)
2.2 Semantic understanding
2.2.1 Lexical cohesion and coherence
Discourse cohesion involves five levels: phonological, lexical, semantic, grammatical and social signs, the five levels have corresponding discourse cohesions, cohesion can be used to construct a coherent discourse. But due to space limitations and personal research interests, this article will explore SYY narrative text generation capability development from age 2 to 4 in vocabulary, grammar and social signs from discourse cohesive perspective and coherence.
We can see the this three cohesive narrative discourse using repeating 
Text (1):
*SYY: bite me.
*GCY: who bite you?
*SYY: he bites me.
*GCY: who is he?
*SYY: he is an old dad.
*GCY: huh?
*SYY: bite me.
Text (2):
*SYHO: can you ride?
*SYH: Hey #ok # Hey.
*SYY: ok
*SYH: Ah.
*SYY: ok
*SYH: can wancheng ride it?
*SYY: he can’t
*SYH: can wancheng ride it?
*SYY: No.
Text (3):
*SYY: this is broken.
*SYH: doesn’t work?
*SYY: yes, doesn’t work.
*SYH: Is it broken?
*SYY: Yes
Text (1) was two years old SYY chatting with GCY generated narrative discourse. In the narrative text, repetition is an important way of discourse cohesion. "Bite" repeated many times, following the 1th line appeared for the first time, and repeated multiple times in the 3rd and 7th lines. From register point of view, this discourse happened in SYY’s home, SYY told GCY that her dad chewing her; tenor of discourse is the communication between mother and daughter, participants lead the talking process, SYY report relevant information to GCY; the form is dialog. Discourse filed, discourse tender and discourse mode constitute a complete register. Repeating and the integrity register make this text became a coherent discourse.
Text (2) is SYY and SYH’s chatting generated a narrative discourse, SYY was three years old at this time. The 3rd and 5th lines repeat the 2nd line of "go", the line of 6th, 7th and 9th also repeated "will". Repeating has been an important cohesion. From register terms, the field of discourse is outside, SYY and SYH discussing things related to cycling; tenor is between father and daughter, father leaded the session process; the form is dialog. These three constitute a completed register. Repeat and the completed register together constitute the discourse coherence.
Text (3) is three years old SYY talked with SYH generated narrative discourse. From textual cohesion point of view, this discourse uses a repeating discourse cohesive. 3rd line of "dig" is repeated the first line. From register point of view, this discourse field is in SYY’s home, discussing if something can be dig; the tenor of discourse is the exchange between father and daughter, father leaded chat process. The form is dialog. Discourse field, discourse tenor and discourse mode constitute a complete register. Repeating and the integrity register make this text became a coherent discourse.
2.2.2 Syntactic ability
Grammatical discourse cohesion refers to the grammatical characteristics of ways and methods to be cohesion and coherence, including reference, ellipsis, substitution, word order, connections and structural duplication. Reference means use ingredients of reference to said different aspects of the text, including internal and external. Ellipsis means in certain contexts to skip some words. Substitution means use the form of substitution to replace the words, including nouns, verbs and clause substitution. Word order means the order of words in sentences including sequencing and reverse. Connection is defined by connecting components through logical relationships in the text. Structure of repeating means the same structure appear repeatedly. The syntax of discourse cohesive can be used to construct a coherent discourse. In this section, we will discuss SYY reference, ellipsis, substitution and reverse by means of discourse cohesion and its contribution to narrative discourse coherence
Here are three reference cohesive discourse narrative
Text (4) *GCY: who broke the dog’s pants? # who made it?
*SYY: Gaofuhao tore.
*GCY: Gaofuhao?
*SYY: well.
*GCY: why does it do this?
*SYY: # going his home …his home …go his home to break his pan
*GCY: go his home to break his pan # what does he eat without pan?
Texts (5) *SYY: this Apple is given by my aunt.
*SYH: Apple?
*SYY: Yes.
*SYH: Really?
*SYY: you ate the Apple.
*SYH: # you eat # keep it.
*SYY: it’s bad
*SYH: bad # you keep and eat it.
*SYY: bad # you chew it for me.
*SYH: well.
*SYY: bad # y you chew it for me.
Text (6) *SYH: where are you going?
*SYY: here # my aunt doesn’t allow me to go there.
*SYH: ok
*SYY: I was angry on that day, my aunt doesn’t allow me to pick the flower but I did it.
*SYH: you can have a look. # don’t pick # this flower looks beautiful.
*SYY: yes
*SYH: you know, don’t pick.
*SYY: didn't pick ours
*SYH: ours, hers is not ok, too
*SYY: ok, beautiful flowers.
*SYH: yes
*SYY: look at this flower.
*SYH: isn’t it beautiful? Don't touch it.
*SYY: it’s squashed
*SYH: it is not squashed, it looks like this.
*SYY: it is not squashed?
*SYH: yes
Text (4) is a narrative discourse that generated by SYY and GCY, mainly including "Gaofuhao torn dog’s pants and its possible consequences". SYY age is two years old at this time. In this discourse, the 2nd line of "Gaofuhao" refers to SYY’s friend, the 6th line of "his home" refers to Gaofuhao’s home and "pot" refers to the Gaofuhao’s pot, using reference discourse cohesion. From rhetorical structure theory perspective, the text consists of two small blocks. From first to 5th line is the first part, the main content is talking about Gaofuhao tore dog’s pants. From 6th to 7th line is the second part, the main content is possible consequences caused by Gaofuhao torn dog’s pants. These two function pats linked together because of the reference "Gaofuhao" and "he" to form a larger functionality, and form a coherent discourse.
Text (5) is a narrative discourse that generated by 3 years old SYY chat with SYH. In this narrative discourse, reference is an important way of discourse cohesion. The "I" of 1th, 9th and 11th line is SYY, the "you" of 5th, 9th, and 11th line is SYH. This text is made up of three parts, form 1th to 4th lines is first part, from 5th to 6th line is second part, from 7th to 11th line is third part. First part talks about Apple, the second talks about who can eat apple, the third talks rotten apple need chew before you can eat. The 3 parts alleged "I" and SYY, "you" and SYH linked together, forming a larger function part, mainly talk about things associated with something to eat, in order to achieve coherence of discourse.
Texts (6) is a narrative discourse that generated by three years and 11 months and 15 days SYY chat with SYH, the topic is "flower". Reference plays a big role on discourse cohesion. "I" on 2nd and 4th line refers SYY, "My aunt" refers to SYY’s aunt, 8th line of "our" refers to SYY’s home, 12th line of "you" refers to SYH, 2nd line of "here" refers to talking place, 4th, 10th and 12th line of "flower" refers to nearby flower. This content includes 4 parts. From first to 4th line is first part, main content is SYY told SYH he picked up the flower for angry, from 5th to 9th line is second part, SYH warned SYY not pick flower, from10th to 13th line is third part, main discuss the beautiful flower, form 14th to 17th line is fourth part, talk flower’s shape. The four parts linked together by "I" and SYY, "flower" and real-life flowers, forming a larger functionality, thus making this discourse became a coherent discourse.
2.3 Speech act
2.3.1 Initiation
Initiation is the opening premise of interactive activities, successful sessions between children also determines the subsequent smooth degree of interactive activities and games. In the quantitative study, we found that the session initiation of children has a big different, one year old children launch much more sessions while after that it will be less. Communication and speech action are seldom used in one year old children’s session.
When children launched the "call", they use more action, communication expression intention is not clear, attention is easy to transfer, not enough to continue a topic initiated interaction, attention focused on the phone itself, simulate the process of calling most was independent to himself, and is brief. With children launched the "calls" activity-specific data analysis
Text 7:
*CH1: I'll make the call.
*CH2: not good.
*CH2: I want
%Act: CH2 make the call and smiles to CH1
*CH1:& Hey, give me crayons
*CH1: can I cook it?
*CH2: Oh •
*CH1: Oh.
*CH2: Hello.
%Act: Make a call.
*CH2: Hello.
*CH 1: huh?
*CH2: door bell door bell.
*CH2: bad 
*CH2: mom
*CH2: my father-in-law was broken.
*CH2: take it over.
In the dialog, the child tried three times to launch a "call", but all ended with failure. For first time, CH1 suggested call by himself, but rejected by his peer, actually CH2 would like to call by himself, so CH1 did other activities. After 30 seconds, second session initiated, CH2 wanted to make the called again, picked up the phone and smile to CH1, but end because the partner didn’t understand his meaning. Third times, CHI2 picked up the phone and imitate phone call, but no response from CH1, when CHI1 transferred his attention to CH2 and sent a request to repeat the disclosure repair, but CH2 turned to other topics and mostly are soliloquize..
2.3.2 Maintain session
Maintain is necessary ability for the smooth of session and the process is the subject of bilateral exchanges and communication, children's language ability in maintaining a session can be fully reflected. In quantitative research, we found from age 3 to 6 children session maintained capacity has quickly developed, children session maintained statement proportion obviously increased. After 4, the maintain among children companion session in the maintained statement by accounted for of proportion on has been by over has launched statement, and thereafter children maintained statement by accounted for proportion continued fast growth, After 6, the percent for maintained statement is above 80%, we can see visible session maintained is very important. The use of the exchange type and verbal action type evolve in children maintenance.
Text 8:
%Act: holding the phone in one hand and a microphone in CH1’s ear.
%Act: took the microphone placed in ear.
*CH 1: Hello.
%Act:  make phone call.
*CH2: Grandpa’s call
*CH 1: Grandpa’s call
*CH2: forget it.
*CH2: come again.
*CH2: repress.
%Act: dial telephone.
*CH I press again.
*CH2: ok•
%Act: dial
*CH2: ok
0/.Act: holding the phone in one hand and a microphone in CHI's ear.
%Act: took the microphone placed in the ear.
*CH I: Hello.
%Act: call.
*CH2: OK.
In this corpus, CHZ launched interactive to put phone on CH1 ear directly, CH1 symbolically answered the phone "Hello", there is no real phone call between two people, CH2 seems to think this is Grandpa on the phone and is over and decide to reopen the dial. When he called again and CH1 called quickly and ended the call, he is interested in calling the behavior itself, instead of the telephone exchange. In this process, the CH2 is dominated the interactions, most of his language is answered by himself, CH1 and his communication is limited to doing by his intentions or imitated and repeated CH2’s word. 
2.3.3 Fix session
Participants’ different language skills, comprehension skills, cognitive skills, life experiences makes their information transmission is not entirely smooth. Listening, speaking and understanding any obstacles on the one hand may cause interruption of activity. Successful interaction is cooperative among participants they take turns talking, monitor and manage the process of information transfer, by repairing to clarify misunderstanding or unclear of content. However, children are in the stage of obtain language communication skills, try using a lower level of communication skills, share the simple exchange experiences, thus managing, processing session interruption is a big challenge for children. In quantitative research, we found whole 3-b age children companion session in the using of fixing are rarely; and from fixer, all are belongs to others’ fix; further analysis on children response capacity on others’ fix, with growth of age, children began to use requests repeat to use request confirmed, request explained, and request detailing, on others launched fix requests of response proportion increased, suitable response of proportion also has big improved.
Text 9:
%Act: close to CH2.
%8ct: didn’t understand CH1, bewildered look at the camera.
*CH 1: Hello.
%Act: make a call.
*CH 1: UH huh.
%Act: make a call.
%Act: make a call.
*CH 1: like mother.
*CH 1: like mother.
%Act: didn’t understand CH1, bewildered look at the camera.
In this corpus, at the beginning CH1 closed to CH2 tried to say something with him, but her voice is softly to hear clearly, or she just wants to express desire to communicate with peers and did not say what substantive words, CH2 showed a dazed expression for this and turned to look at the camera and wanted to tell experimenters he didn't catch. CHI launched behaviors without success, picked up the phone herself playing on the phone, she quickly hung up the phone and turned to the CH2 said: "like mother, like my mother." Her voice is clear, probably meant to say: "I said ' seems mom picks up the phone." But the sentence of the child without clues, the subject of the sentence is missing, CH2 cannot understand what she said, so with confused face and watched the experimenter tried to seek help
3. Conclusion
As the basic education project - children's education has brought increasingly concern in the community. Children in the kindergarten education should explore and learn education forms and methods in all aspects. TV animation has a great influence on children, which have deep influence on first language acquisition in children. Language characteristics of TV cartoon animation determine viewing population. After finding the affection of TV animated on children's language acquisition, the article tries to find out more ways to enhance the impact of children's language acquisition.
Based on two Chinese speaking children aged 3 to 6 years old television imitating study, we found that preschool children can use pragmatic strategies conscious or unconscious to obtain turn-tanking in dynamic transformation process to keeping the turn, transfer turn and repeat and repair during session. Although the impact of gender, personality, there are some differences between two children turn-taking strategies, but overall, obtain and transfer turn-taking strategies are used most frequently and best among preschool children.
Through watching films and TV series, SYY’s narrative cohesion ability is more and more diverse and improved a lot and the flexibility to generate a coherent narrative increased. Her ability to generate a coherent and appropriate narrative discourse in different contexts has been improved, too.
Above all, from quantitative research to quality analysis, we can see from interactive process of 3-6 age children, through the language imitation for television, their participation exchange behavior is changed from less to more, the form of express intention is changed from action to language, the points of exchange discourse is changed from self to others, the way of language expression is changed from fuzzy to abstract, the content of exchange concern is changed from specific to abstract, the theme of launched session is changed from discrete to focused, the process of session maintained from nothing to say to something can be talk, session repair also are experiencing from simple repair to complex repair and repairing by others to self-repairing process.
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